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Warning and General Notes for Anchoring Systems

Warning and General Notes for Anchoring Systems

These general notes are provided to ensure proper installation of Simpson Strong‑Tie Company Inc. products and must be followed fully.

  1. Simpson Strong‑Tie Company Inc. reserves the right to change specifications, designs, and models without notice or liability for such changes. Please refer to strongtie.com for the latest product updates, availability and load tables.
  2. Unless otherwise noted, dimensions are in inches and loads are in pounds.
  3. Do not overload, which will jeopardize the anchorage. Service loads shall not exceed published allowable loads. Factored loads shall not exceed design strengths calculated in accordance with published design data.
  4. Some hardened fasteners may experience premature failure if exposed to moisture. These fasteners are recommended to be used in dry interior applications.
  5. Do not weld products listed in this catalog. Some steel types have poor weldability and a tendency to crack when welded.


Simpson Strong-Tie Company Inc. anchors, fasteners and structural connectors are designed and tested to provide specified design loads. To obtain optimal performance from Simpson Strong-Tie products and to achieve maximum design load, the products must be properly installed and used in accordance with the installation instructions and design limits provided by Simpson Strong-Tie. To ensure proper installation and use, designers and installers must carefully read the General Notes, General Instructions to the Installer and General Instructions to the Designer contained in this catalog, as well as consult the applicable catalog pages for specific product installation instructions and notes. Please always consult the Simpson Strong-Tie website at strongtie.com for updates regarding all Simpson Strong-Tie products.

Proper product installation requires careful attention to all notes and instructions, including the following basic rules:

  1. Be familiar with the application and correct use of the anchor, connector or fastener.
  2. Follow all installation instructions provided in thecatalog, website, Product Guide (S-A-PG) or any other Simpson Strong-Tie publication.
  3. Follow all product-related warnings provided in the catalog, website or any other Simpson Strong-Tie publication.
  4. Install anchors, structural connectors and fasteners in accordance with their intended use.
  5. Install all anchors, structural connectors and fasteners per installation instructions provided by Simpson Strong-Tie.
  6. When using power tools to install fasteners: (a) use proper fastener type for direct fastening tool; (b) use proper powder or gas loads; and (c) follow appropriate safety precautions as outlined in this catalog, on the website or in the tool Operator’s Manual.

In addition to following the basic rules provided above as well as all notes, warnings and instructions provided in the catalog, installers, designers, engineers and consumers should consult the Simpson Strong-Tie website at strongtie.com to obtain additional design and installation information, including:

Failure to fully follow all of the notes and instructions provided by Simpson Strong-Tie may result in improper installation of products. Improperly installed products may not perform to the specifications set forth in this catalog and may reduce a structure’s ability to resist the movement, stress and loading that occur from gravity loads as well as impact events such as earthquakes and high-velocity winds.

Simpson Strong-Tie Company Inc. does not guarantee the performance or safety of products that are modified, improperly installed or not used in accordance with the design and load limits set forth in this catalog.

Anchoring Systems General Instructions for the Installer

These general instructions for the installer are provided to ensure the proper selection and installation of Simpson Strong-Tie products and must be followed carefully. They are in addition to the specific design and installation instructions and notes provided for each particular product, all of which should be consulted prior to and during the installation of Simpson Strong-Tie products.

  1. Do not modify Simpson Strong-Tie products as the performance of modified products may be substantially weakened. Simpson Strong-Tie will not warrant or guarantee the performance of such modified products.
  2. Do not alter installation procedures from those set forth in this catalog.
  3. Drill holes for post-installed anchors with carbide-tipped drills meeting the diameter requirements of ANSI B212.15 (shown in the table to the right). A properly sized hole is critical to the performance of post-installed anchors. Rotary-hammered drills with light, high-frequency impact are recommended for drilling holes. When holes are to be drilled in archaic or hollow base materials, the drill should be set to “rotation only” mode.
  4. Failure to apply the recommended installation torque can result in excessive displacement of the anchor under load or premature failure of the anchor. These anchors will lose pre-tension after setting due to pre-load relaxation. See Supplemental Topic M1 for more information.
  5. Do not disturb, make attachments, or apply load to adhesive anchors prior to the full cure of the adhesive.
  6. Use proper safety equipment.
Finished Diameters for Rotary and Rotary-Hammer Carbide-Tipped Concrete Drills per ANSI B212.15
Nominal Drill Bit Diameter (in.) Tolerance Range Minimum (in.) Tolerance Range Maximum (in.)
1/8 0.134 0.140
5/32 0.165 0.171
3/16 0.198 0.206
7/32 0.229 0.237
1/4 0.260 0.268
5/16 0.327 0.335
3/8 0.390 0.398
7/16 0.458 0.468
1/2 0.520 0.530
9/16 0.582 0.592
5/8 0.650 0.660
11/16 0.713 0.723
3/4 0.775 0.787
13/16 0.837 0.849
27/32 0.869 0.881
7/8 0.905 0.917
15/16 0.968 0.980
1 1.030 1.042
1 1/8 1.160 1.175
1 3/16 1.223 1.238
1 1/4 1.285 1.300
1 5/16 1.352 1.367
1 3/8 1.410 1.425
1 7/16 1.472 1.487
1 1/2 1.535 1.550
1 9/16 1.588 1.608
1 5/8 1.655 1.675
1 3/4 1.772 1.792
2 2.008 2.028

Additional Instructions for the Installer for Gas- and Powder-Actuated Fastening

Before operating any Simpson Strong-Tie gas- or powder-actuated tool, you must read and understand the Operator's Manual and be trained by an authorized instructor in the operation of the tool. Simpson Strong-Tie recommends you read and fully understand the safety guidelines of the tool you use. To become a Certified Operator of Simpson Strong-Tie gas- and powder-actuated tools, you must pass a test and receive a certified operator card. Test and Operator's Manual are included with each tool kit. Extra copies may be obtained by contacting Simpson Strong-Tie at (800) 999-5099.

To avoid serious injury or death:

  1. Always make sure that the operators and bystanders wear safety glasses. Hearing and head protection is also recommended.
  2. Always post warning signs within the area when gas- or powder-actuated tools are in use. Signs should state "Tool in Use."
  3. Always store gas- and powder-actuated tools unloaded. Store tools and powder loads in a locked container out of reach of children.
  4. Never place any part of your body over the front muzzle of the tool, even if no fastener is present. The fastener, pin or tool piston can cause serious injury or death in the event of accidental discharge.
  5. Never attempt to bypass or circumvent any of the safety features on a gas- or powder-actuated tool.
  6. Always keep the tool pointed in a safe direction.
  7. Always keep your finger off the trigger.
  8. Always keep the tool unloaded until ready to use.
  9. Always hold the tool perpendicular (90°) to the fastening surface to prevent ricocheting fasteners. Use the spall guard whenever possible.
  10. Never attempt to fasten into thin, brittle or very hard materials such as glass, tile or cast iron as these materials are inappropriate. Conduct a pre-punch test to determine base material adequacy.
  11. Never attempt to fasten into soft material such as drywall or wood. Fastening through soft materials into appropriate base material may be allowed if the application is appropriate.
  12. Never attempt to fasten to a spalled, cracked or uneven surface.
  13. Re-driving of pins is not recommended.

Anchoring Systems General Instructions for the Designer

These general instructions for the Designer are provided to ensure the proper selection and installation of Simpson Strong-Tie® products and must be followed carefully. They are in addition to the specific design and installation instructions and notes provided for each particular product, all of which should be consulted prior to and during the design process.

  1. The term “Designer” used throughout this catalog is intended to mean a licensed/certified building design professional, a licensed professional engineer or a licensed architect.
  2. All connected members and related elements shall be designed by the designer and must have sufficient strength (bending, shear, etc.) to resist the design loads.
  3. When the allowable stress design method is used, the design service load shall not exceed the published allowable loads reduced by load-adjustment factors for temperature, spacing and edge distance.
  4. When the strength design method is used, the factored loads shall not exceed the design strengths calculated in accordance with the published design data.
  5. Simpson Strong-Tie strongly recommends the following addition to construction drawings and specifications: “Simpson Strong-Tie products are specifically required to meet the structural calculations. Before substituting another brand, confirm load capacity based on reliable published testing data or calculations. The designer should evaluate and give written approval for substituton prior to installation.”
  6. Where used in this catalog, “IBC” refers to the 2018 International Building Code, and “ACI 318” refers to ACI 318-14 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Local and/or regional building codes may require meeting special conditions. Building codes often require special inspection of post-installed anchors installed in concrete and masonry. For compliance with these requirements, contact the local and/or building authority having jurisdiction. Except where mandated by code, Simpson Strong-Tie products do not require special inspection.
  7. Allowable loads and design strengths are determined from test results, calculations and experience. These are guide values for sound base materials with known properties. Due to variation in base materials and site conditions, site-specific testing should be conducted if exact performance in a specific base material at a specific site must be known.
  8. Unless stated otherwise, tests conducted to derive performance information were performed in members with thickness that comply with the appropriate acceptance criteria during testing and assessment. Anchoring into members thinner than recommended in this catalog requires the evaluation and judgment of a qualified designer.
  9. Tests are conducted with anchors installed perpendicular (±6°) from a vertical reference to the surface of the base material. Deviations can result in anchor bending stresses and reduce the load-carrying capacity of the anchor.
  10. Allowable loads and design strengths do not consider bending stresses due to shear loads applied with large eccentricities.
  1. Metal anchors and fasteners will corrode and may lose load-carrying capacity when installed in corrosive environments or exposed to corrosive materials. See Supplemental Topic G3.
  2. Mechanical anchors should not be installed into concrete that is less than 7 days old. The allowable loads and design strengths of mechanical anchors that are installed into concrete less than 28 days old should be based on the actual compressive strength of the concrete at the time of installation.
  3. Nominal embedment depth (“embedment depth”) is the distance from the surface of the base material to the installed end of the anchor and is measured prior to application of an installation torque (if applicable). Effective embedment depth is the distance from the surface of the base material to the deepest point at which the load is transferred to the base material.
  4. Drill bits shall meet the diameter requirements of ANSI B212.15. For adhesive anchor installations in oversized holes, see Supplemental Topic A1. For adhesive anchor installations into core-drilled holes, see Supplemental Topic A2.
  5. Threaded-rod inserts for adhesive anchors shall be oil-free UNC fully threaded steel. Bare steel, zinc plating, mechanical galvanizing or hot-dip galvanizing coatings are acceptable.
  6. Allowable loads and design strengths are generally based on testing of adhesive anchors installed into dry holes. For installations into damp, wet and submerged environments, see Supplemental Topic A3.
  7. ACI 318 states that adhesive anchors should not be installed into concrete that is less than 21 days old. For information on adhesive anchors installed into concrete less than 21 days old, see Supplemental Topics for Anchors.
  8. Adhesive anchors can be affected by elevated base material temperature. See Supplemental Topic A4.
  9. Anchors are permitted to support fire-resistant construction provided at least one of the following conditions is fulfilled: (a) anchors are used to resist wind or seismic forces only; (b) anchors that support gravity-load-bearing structural elements are within a fire-resistive envelope or a fire-resistive membrane, are protected by approved fire-resistive materials, or have been evaluated for resistance to fire exposure in accordance with recognized standards; or (c) anchors are used to support non-structural elements.
  10. Exposure to some chemicals may degrade the bond strength of adhesive anchors. Refer to the product description for chemical resistance information or refer to the topic "Chemical Resistance of Adhesive Anchors" under Supplemental Topics for Anchors.
  11. Use of rodless pneumatic tools to dispense single-tube, coaxial adhesive cartridges is prohibited.