4. Out-of-Plane Wall Bracing

Once the walls have been anchored to the diaphragms, the unbraced length of these brittle walls may cause them to buckle out-of-plane during lateral loading. Where the height-to-thickness ratio of the walls exceeds the limits given in the existing building code or standard, additional bracing should be utilized between diaphragms to increase the out-of-plane strength of the URM wall assembly. This can be done by attaching wood or steel strongbacks to the walls. Another option is to add Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) or Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) to the walls. The use of FRP and FRCM will also greatly increase the in-plane shear strength without adding significant weight to the building.

5. Lateral Shear Resistance