Once the walls have been anchored to the diaphragms, the unbraced length of these brittle walls may cause them to buckle out-of-plane during lateral loading. Where the height-to-thickness ratio of the walls exceeds the limits given in the existing building code or standard, additional bracing should be utilized between diaphragms to increase the out-of-plane strength of the URM wall assembly. This can be done by attaching wood or steel strongbacks to the walls. Another option is to add Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) or Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) to the walls. The use of FRP and FRCM will also greatly increase the in-plane shear strength without adding significant weight to the building.
There are a number of epoxy solutions that may be used to repair structural concrete and masonry that cover a wide range of crack widths and applications.
FX-263 Rapid-Hardening Vertical/Overhead Repair Mortar is a cementitious, single-component, fiber-reinforced, polymer-modified, silica fume-enhanced, structural repair mortar with integral corrosion inhibitor designed for vertical and overhead applications.
AT-XP® is a fast-cure, all-weather, high-strength anchoring adhesive and may be used to anchor threaded steel rods or deformed steel reinforcing bars in unreinforced masonry.
ET-HP® is an epoxy-based system for use as a high-strength, non-shrink anchor-grouting material and may be used to anchor threaded steel rods or deformed steel reinforcing bars in unreinforced masonry.
Angles transfer shear forces for wood to wood framing connections. The A35 with 1/2" long screws might be used to transfer shear forces from 1/2" minimum thickness sheathing to wood framing connections.
Hand-drive or collated screws may be used to enhance wood diaphragm strength. Strong-Drive structural wood screws may be used for connector or steel to wood connections.